Technology

Generations of Mobile Networks & Evolution of 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G

Our life has become so digital that smartphone cannot be isolated from us because imagine once, the life without a smartphone or a cellphone you can’t. Mobile Phone is serving us as a wireless communicator, Bank, Payment system, PC, Music System, Camera, Camcorder, navigator, best pal whatnot everything. Today some of the countries are enjoying 5G network services whereas most of the countries are trying for it. Leaving a couple of countries most of the world is using the 4G network services & 4G mobiles. Let us check out how the generations are evolved in the wireless mobile communications.

Evolution of Wireless Generations:

Before the year 1980 there were some technologies which made the people to make wireless phone, by using the technologies like MTS – Mobile Telephone Service, Motorola company launched the first commercial MTS in US in 1946, likewise a number of companies in different countries emerged. Before the evolution of the first Generation wireless network or 1G there was a pre cellular technology, countries like US started using it in the year 1946.

  • 0G – Pre Cellular technology
  • 1G – First Generation Wireless Network
  • 2G – Second Generation Wireless Network
  • 3G – Third Generation Wireless Network
  • 4G – Fourth Generation Wireless Network
  • 5G – Fifth Generation Wireless Network

Pre Cellphone Technology/ OG:

Before the existence of the so called cellphones, mobile radio telephones were the first ever wireless radio phones  and these were operated with the help of PTT, MTS, IMTS, and AMTS technologies. PTT – Push to talk, MTS – Mobile Telephone Services, IMTS – Improved Mobile Telephone Services, and finally AMTS – Advanced Mobile Telephone Services.

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What is 1G?

1G is the first generation wireless mobile communication technology, 1G or first generation of wireless network was introduced in the year 1980, the technology used in the 1G Mobile phones was analogue telecommunications and the radio signal used in the 1G network was analogue.

  • The 1G commercial services was first launched in Japan in the year 1979.
  • The first company to provide 1G commercial services is Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT).
  • Moving on in the year 1981, the first ever international roaming featured mobile network was launched in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway.
  • In the year 1983, Ameritech launched the 1G commercial services by using the Motorola Dynatac mobilephone.
  • 1G mobile network is still used in Russia.

What is 2G?

2G is the second generation wireless mobile communication technology, the 2G commercial services were launched in Finland in the year 1991. It was introduced based on the GSM standards.

Features of 2G Network & 2G Data Speed:

  • 2G network encrypted the conversations digitally and received by the intended user exclusively.
  • 2G enabled more number of users by using the radio frequency spectrum.
  • Most important feature, data services like SMS, MMS etc , this feature enabled a lot of commercial services providers to provide data services.
  • The radio frequency used in the 1G network was analogue while the 2G network was digital.
  • The data speed in 2G network was 40 Kbit/s.
  • Later 2.5G GPRS was introduced with packet-switched domain.
  • Finally 2.75G EDGE was launched in 2003 by AT&T in the US.

What is 3G?

3G is the third generation wireless mobile communication technology, 3G is the advanced version of both 2G & 2.5G wireless mobile networks. 3G was launched with IMT – 2000 standards. IMT stands for International Mobile Telecommunications. The first 3G services was launched commercially in the year 1998 by NTT Docomo in Japan.

Features of 3G Network & 3G Data Speed:

  • Mobile internet access
  • Video calls
  • Mobile TV
  • Fixed wireless internet access    
  • 3.5G & 3.75G was launched that provides mobile broadband to smartphones, modems, personal computer, and laptops.
  • According to the IMTS – 2000, the data speed must be 0.2 Mbit/s.

What is 4G?

4G is the fourth generation wireless mobile communication technology, 4G is the advanced version of both 3G, 3.5G, and 3.75G wireless mobile networks. 4G was launched with ITU standards. ITU is the advanced IMT . The 4G was developed to provide the potential services like IP telephony, HD Mobile TV, 3D Television, Video Conferencing, and Mobile web access.

4G LTE:

The first 4G services was launched commercially in the year 2009 by Norway, Oslo, Stockholm, and Sweden in the name of 4G LTE. LTE stands for Long Term Evolution.

Features of 4G Network & 4G Data Speed:

  • IP telephony
  • HD Mobile TV
  • 3D Television
  • Video Conferencing
  • Mobile web access
  • According to the ITU, the data speed must be 100 Mbit/s.

What is LTE?

The full form of LTE is Long Term Evolution, basically LTE is a standard for wireless broadband communications, and it enhances the capacity and the speed of the wireless communications in terms data speed by using the digital signal processing technique. LTE is owned by the ETSI – European Telecommunications Standards Institute. Initially when LTE was launched, everyone thought that it is advance 4G or 4G LTE but 4G and LTE are different. 4G is designed and developed and works on the ITU standards whereas LTE works on the ETSI standards.

What are Mobile Generations?

We know about human generations later on computer generations etc, even wireless mobile communications have generations. Before the first generation and which led to cause the 1G was 0G or pre cell Phone technology or 0 Generation. The Mobile generations from 1G to 5G they are all the successors of the pre cell phone generation or 0G. Depending on the requirements the generations in the wireless communications are evolved. Right now they are 6 generations, they are 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G. During the tenure of 2G or second generation there were 2.5G & 2.75G. Coming to the third generation there were 3.5G & 3.75G.

Differences Between 1G & 2G Networks:                     

1G Network Features 2G Network Features
The Radio frequency used in the 1G was Analogue The Radio Frequency used in the 2G network was Digital
The voice is modulated to high frequency The Voice is converted to Digital signals
Data Services
SMS, MMS,
Data Speed – 40 Kbit/s
Text Messages, Picture Messages, Multi Media Messages
2.5G – GPRS Technology was used
2.75G – EDGE Technology was used

Differences Between 1G , 2G, 3G Networks:                 

1G Network Features 2G Network Features 3G Network Features
The Radio frequency used in the 1G was Analogue The Radio Frequency used in the 2G network was Digital The Radio Frequency used in the 3G network was Digital
The voice is modulated to high frequency The Voice is converted to Digital signals The Voice is converted to Digital signals
Data Services Data Services
SMS, MMS, SMS, MMS,
Data Speed – 40 Kbit/s Date Speed – 0.2 Mbit/s
Text Messages, Picture Messages, Multi Media Messages Text Messages, Picture Messages, Multi Media Messages
2.5G – GPRS Technology was used 3.5G – to provide mobile broadband to smartphones, modems, personal computer, and laptops.  
2.75G – EDGE Technology was used 3.75G – to provide better mobile broadband to smartphones, modems, personal computer, and laptops.  
Mobile internet access  
Video calls  
Mobile TV  
Fixed wireless internet access                                                                           

Differences Between 3G 4G Networks:                        

3G Network Features 4G Network Features
The Radio Frequency used in the 3G network was Digital The Radio Frequency used in the 3G network was Digital
The Voice is converted to Digital signals The Voice is converted to Digital signals
Data Services Data Services
SMS, MMS, SMS, MMS,
Data Speed – 0.2 Mbit/s Data Speed – 100 Mbit/s
Text Messages, Picture Messages, Multi Media Messages Text Messages, Picture Messages, Multi Media Messages
3.5G – to provide mobile broadband to smartphones, modems, personal computer, and laptops.   3.5G – to provide mobile broadband to smartphones, modems, personal computer, and laptops.  
3.75G – to provide better mobile broadband to smartphones, modems, personal computer, and laptops.   3.75G – to provide better mobile broadband to smartphones, modems, personal computer, and laptops.  
Mobile internet access   Mobile internet access  
Video calls   Video calls  
Mobile TV   Mobile TV  
Fixed wireless internet access   Fixed wireless internet access  
IP Telephony
HD Mobile TV
3D Television
Video Conferencing
Mobile web access

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